Mentoring

Summary

Author: Michael Kalichman, 2001
Contributors: P.D. Magnus, Dena Plemmons
Updates: Jamie Schiffer, 2016


Definition



Definition of a mentor (NAS, 1997):

In the broad sense intended here, a mentor is
someone who takes a special interest in helping another person develop into a successful professional.



Frustrating Faculty
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A mentor:
  1. Has experience with the challenges that will be faced by a mentee
  2. Communicates experience to the mentee
  3. Assists the mentee in understanding and adhering to the standards of conduct within their profession
  4. Teaches responsible conduct explicitly and by example


Mentoring involves both:
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Background

Why is mentorship an ethical concern?


Effective mentoring is essential to the future of science

Mentoring:

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Such mentoring may readily occur within a small research group, but:

An absence of effective mentoring means that:



What does effective mentorship look like?

Effective, ethical, and successful mentors should:

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Regulations and Guidelines

Responsibilities of Mentors and Mentees



Many excellent resources are available to learn about guidelines, best practices, and recommendations for effective mentoring (e.g., Swazey and Anderson, 1996; NAS, 1997; University of Michigan, 2010, 2011).

Importance of Mentoring



Need for Multiple Mentors
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Mentor Responsibilities Mentee Responsibilities

Discussion

Discussion Questions


Questions for mentors
  1. Discuss the role of mentoring in promoting the responsible conduct of research.
  2. What are the roles and responsibilities of principal investigators in promoting effective mentoring relationships?
  3. About which aspects of your career path did you feel least prepared?
  4. What mentors have you had in the past that have helped you get where you currently are?
  5. What are the characteristics of an effective mentor? What similarities and differences characterize mentors and supervisors?
  6. What do you currently do well as a mentor?
  7. What do you think you could improve upon as a mentor?
  8. Do you think that any of the items listed for Effective Mentorship are outside your responsibility? Why or why not?
Questions for mentees
  1. Discuss the role of mentoring in promoting the responsible conduct of research.
  2. What are the roles and responsibilities of mentees in promoting effective mentoring relationships?
  3. About which aspects of your career path do you feel least prepared? Who, or what kinds of people would be best positioned to help fill your needs? How might you initiate or promote a role for one of these people as your mentor?
  4. What are the characteristics of an effective mentor? What similarities and differences characterize mentors and supervisors?
  5. What guidelines or programs are in place to promote mentoring in your institution?
  6. What does your current mentor(s) do well? What could your current mentor(s) improve upon?
  7. Where else could you look to receive mentoring?
Case Studies



Resources

  1. Anderson MS, Louis KS, Earle J (1994): Disciplinary and departmental effects on observations of faculty and graduate student misconduct. Journal of Higher Education 65: 331-350.
  2. Brown S, Kalichman MW (1998): Effects of training in the responsible conduct of research: A survey of graduate students in experimental science. Science and Engineering Ethics 4: 487-498.
  3. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (2000): Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisors, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  4. Douglas-Vidas J, Ferraro A, Reichman M (2001): Analysis of Guidelines for the Conduct of Research Adopted by Medical Schools or Their Components. Published online by the USPHS Office of Research Integrity.
  5. Eastwood S, Derish P, Leash E, Ordway S (1996): Ethical issues in biomedical research: Perceptions and practices of postdoctoral research fellows responding to a survey. Science and Engineering Ethics 2: 89-114.
  6. Institute of Medicine (1989): The Responsible Conduct of Research in the Health Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  7. Jones NL, (2016): Raising Scientific Experts. American Scientist.
  8. NAS (1997): Adviser, teacher role model, friend: On being a mentor to students in science and engineering. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
  9. NIH (1989): Requirement for programs on the responsible conduct of research in National Research Service Award institutional training programs. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts 18(45).
  10. NIH (1992): Reminder and update: Requirement for instruction in the responsible conduct of research in National Research Service Award institutional training grants. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts 21(43).
  11. Swazey JP, Anderson MS (1996): Mentors, advisors, and role models in graduate and professional education. Association of Academic Health Centers, Washington, DC.
  12. University of Michigan (2010): How to Get the Mentoring You Want: A Guide for Graduate Students. Rackham Graduate School.
  13. University of Michigan (2011): How to Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide for Faculty. Rackham Graduate School.
  14. University of Wisconsin: Resources for Each Phase of the Mentoring Relationship.
  15. Wright DE, Titus DL, Cornelison JB (2008): Mentoring and research misconduct: an analysis of research mentoring in closed ORI cases. Sci Eng Ethics. 2008 Sep;14(3):323-36.
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